Creation and Updating of Topographic Maps
Considering the fact that some topographic maps of the territory of our country have been made in sixties and their latest update was in 70-80s of the past century, it is essential to update them. The topographic maps should be updated every 6-8 years for the most populated regions, and every 10-15 years for other regions.
At present time, the earth remote sensing data ensure the update of the topographic maps to the scale of 1:2 000 with the use of high-precision digital relief model (0,15 m) and 1:5 000 with the use of digital relief model on the basis of maps to the scale of 1: 25 00 with the use of QuickBird.
It is quite difficult to control the extensive territories occupied with agricultural land due to the lack of accurate maps, poorly developed network of on-line monitoring sites, the earth stations including weather stations, due to the absence of air support, high cost of maintenance etc. Besides, in view of all kinds of natural processes, there is continuous change of boundaries of sown area, soil properties and conditions of vegetation on various fields and lots. All these factors hinder the obtainment of objective, on-line information needed for establishment of current situation, its assessment and forecast. The satellite survey of agricultural land helps to solve such problems.
Typical tasks in this field are: the inventory of agricultural land, the control of crops condition, the identification of erosion, flooding, salinity and desertification, the determination of soil composition, the monitoring of quality and timeliness of various agricultural activities. In case of regular surveys, the tasks are: the control of crops development trend and the crop capacity forecast. For instance, knowing how the spectral brightness of vegetation changes during the whole growing season, it is possible to make conclusions regarding the land condition of the fields depending on their image tone. After the wintering, the condition of winter crops is assessed on the basis of differences in color of healthy and cold-killed plants, the condition of summer plants before the harvesting can be assessed on the basis of extent of grass density and evenness.
Forest Fire Damage Assessment
The use of remote sensing data of various spatial resolutions ensures to large extent the reduction of time spent for environmental and economic damage assessment of forest fires. In addition, the application of remote sensing data helps to quickly assess the ignition centers and to make timely decisions with regard to activities of forest protection services.
This method aims at the fire-site contouring, determined with the space images by means of visual interpretation or by means of automatic classification, on the digital map of forests composition and at the determination of area of burned lots of various kinds of trees.
The use of space images made at different times helps to identify new objects on the forest territory for the purpose of monitoring of target consumption of forest resources.
Monitoring of Trend and Condition of Forest Felling.
Detection of Sites of IllegalForest Felling.
Application of remote sensing data in the control of forest felling helps to obtain operative data relating to the dynamics and condition of forest felling activities, to the sites of illegal forest felling by means of simple mapping of boundaries of licensed sites, to accurately assess the area of illegal forest felling, the forest composition (if additional materials such as maps of forest composition are available), to approximately determine the period of forest felling with the use of archive data as well as to assess the recovery processes on the sites cut off before.
Use of Satellite Survey Data in Geology and Geomorphology
The use of remote sensing methods ensures the significant reduction of cost of integrated exploration of extensive territories, which are often inaccessible for exploration with traditional methods due to various reasons.
The main directions of the use of remote sensing methods in geology are the following:
1. Structure and meta-structure analysis of the Earth surface;
2. Analysis of local and global geoinformation anomalies;
3. Geological study of areas and geological mapping;
4. Geoecological monitoring of exogenous geological processes:
a) Gravity (slope) processes;
b) Karst-suffosion processes and their man-caused analogues;
c) Erosion and abrasion processes;
d) Cryogenic processes;
5. Minerals forecast:
a) Regional stage – assessment of forecast mineral resources of oil and gas bearing and ore provinces, ore bearing zones and regions;
b) Detailed (exploration) stage – zone forecast with detection of oil and gas bearing and ore zones, ore regions and clusters;
c) Local (prospecting) stage of forecast – exploration of the field, evaluation of reserves;
6. Control of the use of licensed sites;
7. Analysis and relief mapping;
9. Planetary cartography.
The Use of Satellite Survey Data for Soil Salinity Monitoring
The study of topsoil, which is mainly covered by vegetation, by means of satellite images is more complicated than the study of other landscapes.
Salinity is considered the most dynamic parameter of the soil and requires frequent salinity surveys especially in irrigation conditions that results in considerable expenses. This leads to the need to use remote methods.
(Soil Salinity Map of the Agricultural Land of Southern Kazakhstan Area Made of the Basis of Data SPOT-4 and Field Studies)
Update of Maps of Oil and Gas Fields Infrastructure on the Basis of High-Resolution Satellite Survey DataIn view of intensive development of oil and gas sector in Kazakhstan, it is necessary to have accurate information on present day conditions, structure and operation of facilities on the territory of the fields. In this regard, regular high-resolution satellite survey of the fields’ territories is the best solution.
In the course of digital mapping of the fields’ infrastructure, detailed information on each facility is entered into the database.
The Use of Remote Sensing Data to Prevent Emergencies and to Eliminate Their Consequences
The problems solved by remote sensing with the view of prevention of emergencies and elimination of their consequences include:
1. Monitoring of flood flows in the rivers, control of high water and floods of various origins (rains, snow melting, consequences of earthquakes, water power plant accidents etc.), ice conditions control at river flooding;
2. Detection of contaminants discharge into the water pools and seas;
3. Detection and control of distribution of contaminants emissions into atmosphere of cities and industrial zones, smoke generation in cities and settlements as a result of forest, steppe and peat-bog fires;
4. Detection of agricultural zones susceptible to drought;
5. Monitoring of mountain glaciers melting;
6. Detection and control of mudflows and landslides;
7. Control of territories situated in ebb and flow zones and in the zones of run-ups and run-downs;
8. Control of territories after earthquakes;
9. Detection of sand and dust storms, control of their consequences;
10. Control of desertification (intensive soil degradation) due to soil salinity, wind erosion and surface wash of the topsoil, climate change;
11. Control of intensive swamping of the territories.
(Controlled Discharge of Water of Moraine Lake to Prevent Mudflow)
Monitoring of Oil Spills by Means of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data
The use of remote sensing data with the large amount of spectral channels ensures the precise identification of sites of oil pollution and the classification of pollution depending on the oil condition (open sites of oil spills, oil contaminated soil etc.). The best result is achieved with additional field spectrometric studies in the course of which “the pure classes” of oil pollution of various extents are determined.
In such way, it is possible to accurately determine the areas of oil pollution of various kinds and to assess the damage.
(Determination of “the Pure Classes” of Oil Pollution of Various Extents by Means of Data «Hyperion»)
The Use of Remote Sensing Data in City Planning
• Maps of land lots use (monitoring);
• Change of territories occupied by cities, settlements, industrial zones; their conditions;
• Environmental monitoring, detection of zones of environmental distortion (pollution of soil, atmosphere, water pools);
• Monitoring of recovery of natural landscapes disturbed as a result of industrial use;
• Monitoring of individual infrastructure facilities (roads, bridges, industrial facilities);
• Regular assessment and development of the program for transport network improvement;
• Detection of production and consumption waste disposal facilities;
• City planning, construction, transport, public facilities;
• Cadastral works;
• Planning of city infrastructure services;
• Visual presentation of plans at business meetings and public actions.
• Monitoring of changes of city building on the basis of archive images of various years.