The activity, closely related to the prospecting, production and transportation of the hydrocarbon raw material, affects the environmental condition, especially in the areas of the direct impact (gas and oil wells, burning of associated gas, the petroleum refineries, pipelines, road network, the associated infrastructure etc.), and specifically affects the natural territorial complexes in the way typical for a kind of industrial activity. Therefore, it is necessary to develop such directions as the anthropogenic impact assessment and the integrated environmental assessment.
To assess the condition of the natural objects means to investigate many factors and characteristics that are forming the given objects. With the purpose of the qualitative and rapid analysis of these data, the Geographic Information System (GIS) is usually developed.
The GIS is a basic element for efficient monitoring and management decision-making in the field of environmental protection in conformity with Kazakhstan ecological requirements and partners’ commitments.
The GIS ensures easy integration and analysis of the data from the ecological monitoring stations, the remote sensing and field studies.
The development environment of GIS tools allows the creation of additional program modules and applications for the solution of specific problems as well as the modeling and forecasting on the basis of existing and newly developed techniques.
The aim of the ecological GIS is to help in the following areas:
- Collection, storage, mapping and interpretation of the complex information about environmental condition;
- Cartographical and analytical database for the realization of environmental impact assessment (AEI), state environmental examinations etc.;
- Preparation of recommendations on efficient activities on the elimination of emergencies and accidents;
- Elaboration of the science-based solutions in the course of planning of the activities for reduction of ecosystems environmental impact;
- Science-based estimates of the material compensation for the environmental and health damage;
- Visual effective representation of the results of environmental monitoring with the view of overcoming of social tension, related to the oil-producing activities on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
- Remote monitoring with the view of control of oil spill of the old and new oil wells, detection of the anthropogenic disturbed areas in the regions, which are difficult to access.