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Review of works in the field of ecology
based on Remote Sensing and GIS
on the territory of Central Asia and Kazakhstan

In 2007, within the framework of 5 projects on «The adjustment of the technical and economic assessment in the elaboration part of the general plan of the infrastructure development » for the State National Natural  Parks (SNNP), the works on the assessment of the tourist potential and the planning of the development of the recreation infrastructure and tourism of the State National Natural  Parks, are executed: Ile-Alatauskiy, «Burabay», «Altyn-Emel», «Bayanaul», «Kokshetau».

          At the present time, at the increase in a population, the wealthiness growth and the increasing of the interest to the rest on nature, the extraordinarily urgent estimation of the necessities of population in rest ,and the possibility of the natural territories to satisfy them. The absence of the General plan of development results to the inefficient use of the resources of territory, also it jeopardizes the natural ecosystems, and conduces to the decline of the aesthetic and cognitive attractiveness of territory, to the loss of the interest of the potential holidaymakers. The State National Natural Parks are of primary importance in process of the satisfaction of the holidaymakers’ requirements. Here, along with the guard and the study of the natural complexes, one of the priority directions of activity is the development of the recreation, tourism and ecological education of population.

       Works were conducted, taking into account, that from all the types of tourism on the territory of the SNNP, mainly the ecological tourism is allowed.

The basic principles of the ecological tourism are :

· The saving of the biodiversity of the recreational territories

· The increasing of the level of the economic stability of regions, which are engaged in the sphere of the ecological tourism

· The increasing of the level of the ecological culture of the participants of the ecological -tourist activity                                                            · The saving of the historical, cultural and ethnographic status of the recreational territory.

In accordance with these positions, on the basis of the analysis of the present domestic and international experiences, for the every SNNP, the following questions were worked out:

- the assessment of the tourist potential of territory, it depends on peculiarity of the territory; the analysis of the factors, that have a strong influence on the development of recreation and tourism, both positive and negative;

- the detection of the prospective directions of tourism;

- the determination of the recreational capacity of territory; 

- the elaboration of the recommendations on the co-operating with partners, during the organization of a tourist activity;

- the elaboration of the recommendations on the involving of the local associations in the process of the development of the tourist activity in the SNNP, with the purpose of : the creation of the  workplaces and the forming of the positive perception of the protected territory, the active participation of these associations in the guard of the SNNP- territory , of the historical and cultural objects;

- the detection of the reserve potentials for getting  a profit, out of the tourist activity for the benefit of the SNNP, the determination of the sequence of the administration activities on the usage of these reserves;

- the determination of the volumes and methods of the carrying out of the ecological-educational activity, in connection with the necessity of reduction of the man impact on the SNNP –ecosystems.

           After the analysis of the condition of the recreational and tourist infrastructures at the moment, the following recommendations were developed:

            on the creation of the new objects of the tourist infrastructure and of the concomitant objects of the domestic  service;

            on the correct choice of the places of location, and  the improvement of the objects of the tourist infrastructure;

            on the methods of the monitoring of the state of ecosystems, that have a strong influence from the anthropogenic pressure, and also the methods of the monitoring of the tourist activity;

            the calculations for the explanation of the staffing of tourism in the SNNP are made, and also the recommendations on the improvement of the organizational structure of the SNNP, are given;

            the rules of the tourists staying on the territory of the SNNP ,subject to the peculiarities of each territory ,and the most effective methods of  its adoption, are developed.

         The similar estimation of a territory, which is intended for the use in the recreational and tourist aims, it helps to estimate correctly its potential possibilities: the expected amount of visitors, the prospective target groups, the prospective directions of the tourist activity, the recreational scope, the necessary measures on the improvement and protection of ecosystems. On the basis of such comprehensive inspection and analysis, it is possible to make the more exact calculations of the volume of the capital investments in the development of one or another territory. It is possible to count the number of the created workplaces, to expose the sources of the potential labour force, to keep a balance of the interests of all the involved sides and, thus, to stabilize all the planned tourist activities.


                                                                     SNNP «Altyn-Emel»


           The section of the report, that is touching the tourist and recreational activity, contains 44 pages, including text and tables. Besides, it contains: the necessary appendixes, the list of the used literature, the references to used sources, the glossary of terms, the map of the present and offered tourist routes, and the map of the location of objects of the present and planned tourist infrastructure.


The factors are affecting on the development of tourism in the SNNP «Altyn-Emel»


The descriptions are promoting the tourist and recreational attractiveness of territory
The descriptions are limiting the tourist and recreational attractiveness of territory

A good preservation of territory

The variety and uniqueness of the objects of show: the natural geological and biological objects, the historical and archaeological monuments

The aesthetic attractiveness of landscapes

The administration of the SNNP, keeps the tourist objects in the excellent sanitary state

The availability of information ( website and office in Almaty)

Remoteness from the large settlements. The absence of the enough hard-surface roads. The visit to the SNNP territory at a high price. High prices of the residential services. 
Mass rest

Availability of the vast water areas: The Kapchagaiskoe Water Reservoir,

The Ily River

Long hot period in summer

A fair visibility of landscape, the combination of the water surface,a plain and the mountain peaks in scenery

A presence of the mineral water resources 

The water-short of the land territory

Winters with a little snow

Periodic strong breezes

The sparseness on the territory, and the large remoteness of the separate demonstration objects

Absence of the plantations of trees on the shore of the Kapchagaiskoe Water Reservoir

Absence of the beaches of the large area and

                              absence of the good quality of  beaches

The periodically observed turbidity of water in the Ily River and in the upper part of the Kapchagaiskoe Water Reservoir

Absence of the residential infrastructure near the water bodies

Absence of the sanatoria and health infrastructure

Absence of the variety of the recreational activities

Ecological tourism

Fauna resources , habitation of the rare species of the vertebrate animals

High animal numbers of the hoofs, accessible for a supervision

Flora resources, including the rare and endemic species

Large variety and uniqueness of the plant associations

The original geological structures and objects

The originality of combination and the aesthetic attractiveness of landscapes

Spacious and thinly populated territories

The presence of the unique historical and archaeological monuments

 Presence in the SNNP staff of the specialists ,who know well the mores of animals

Presence of the vast water area, suitable for the sporting-adventure tourism (the aquatics, including a sailing sport)


The lack of development of the tourist infrastructure of the–middle and –low levels of comfort

The severe climate

Absence of the special botanical routes

Absence among the guides of the specialists, who know a flora

Absence in the staff of the specialists, who speak a foreign languages Absence of the special sport equipment and instructors for the sporting-adventure tourism

Hunting and fishing
The abundance of the species for hunt. Large quantity of the game animals. A plenty of the reservoirs and fish in them. The presence of the specialists – organizers of hunting and fishingAbsence of the tourist infrastructure, oriented to the fishermen
Educational tourism
Variety of ecosystems, landscapes, plenty of the varieties of the biological objects The dispersednessand the large distances to the separate objects of demonstration
Scientific tourism
Riches and variety of flora and fauna, the interesting geological and paleontological objects, the presence of the rare and endemic species and ecosystemsThe insufficiency of the advertising of the available possibilities. Absence of the specialists of the different biological specialities in the staff


            Presently, on the territory of the SNNP «Altyn-Emel», there are 5 hotels, that offer 52 places for the accommodation of tourists, 4 lodges -27 places and 2 equipped movable apartments, which offer 5 places for the accommodation of hunters. There are 4 points for the placing of the encampments with the capacity of accommodation-44 places, 1 yurta (the nomad's tent) for 6 persons. The infrastructure is a property of the SNNP. The SNNP, actually, is a monopolist in the sphere of the services – accommodation, provision with meals.

There is a museum (it is on a reconstruction), 3 combined bus-pedestrian tourist route are functioning, the places for the hunt and fishing amateurs’ are fixed on. Repair and building of the objects are conducted by the self-supporting of the SNNP.

           The tourist  activity, on the territory of the SNNP , besides the SNNP itself, carry out 6 travel agencies, that are providing the reception and service of the tourists from all regions of Kazakhstan, and from the near and distant abroad ;these travel agencies carry on the promotion of tours to the regional and foreign markets.

            The residential infrastructure of the SNNP is in a good condition. The basic amount of rooms (in hotels and lodges)are double rooms, there is a shower and the rest room in some rooms, the other rooms are equipped with the common (for  several persons) shower and the rest room. There is a fire-place hall in the ”Kyzylauys Hotel”. There are rooms, where you can cook meal and eat it .There are more cheap multi-seater rooms. All apartments have a good  repair with the use of the modern materials,  are equipped  with a necessary furniture, are kept in a cleanness .The adjoining to the hotels and lodges territory, is put in order, there are: water, a planting, flowerbeds, bathhouses, summerhouses and trestle beds for the rest on air paths ;there is water on the territory. For the comfort travelling,the SNNP has the special car («Ural») of the off-road capability, equipped with a“caravan” ,which is fitted out inside with a double room with all facilities.

           The road network is in a good condition. The hard-surface roads are on the lands, which belong to the “akimat”. The other roads, which are conducing to the tourist objects, once or twice in a year, are repaired by the grader, it allows to move on the territory with a high speed and comfort.

           The tourist routes are supplied with the guide signs, in the places of stops: summerhouses, tables, benches, water closets, dustbins, are erected. The buildings, near the objects of the demonstration for tourists, are executed from the natural materials and not included in the contradiction with a local landscape. Garbage is cleaned up in time. The routes and tourist objects are supported in an ideal cleanness.

            Presently, the collection of the means in the budget of the SNNP,  is satisfactory. Within the territory of the SNNP, there are few categories of the business players: the physical and corporate persons, are operating within the limits of lands, they are supervised by the “akimat” of settlement “Basshy”; the farms, which are situated in the down- mountain part of the territory; but nobody of them are occupied with the tourist activity, the tourist activity is realized only by the forces of the SNNP or the travel agencies on the contractual basis. The SNNP has the worked mechanism of the payment collection, and the developed control system of the tourists, which are on its territory.

           At the calculation of the recreational capacity of territory, it is necessary to take into account its the natural features and the vulnerability of the separate ecosystems.

           The recreational beach tourism can develop only on conditions, that the shore terrace will be used for improvement. On the territory of the SNNP is better to use the minimum load, which is calculated on a psychological criterion (100 man/ga), at the width of the used zone — 0,5 km . In fact, taking into account the water-short of territory and problems of the nature protections of the SNNP, for the recreation it is necessary to use the part of the coast of the Kapchagaiskoe Water Reservoir of total length  of-4,6 km, that makes the area of beach of 230 ga. This area will seat 23000 persons. The creation of the recreation area of the intensive use is possibly at proper equipment of beaches (umbrellas, deck-chairs, bath houses, paths, planting, rest rooms, dustbins etc).The   developing of the suitable shore area with the maximal intensity is not recommended, because in case of increasing of the people accumulation, the factor of nervousness increases also, that has a bad influence on the zoological piece of the surrounding ecosystems. In the SNNP must be carried out the regular monitoring of the man's impact, and in the future, after the getting of the experience of the receiving of holiday-makers, the rules of the visitation of the territories during the beach rest should be developed, these rules must limit the recreational load in the case of the threat to the surrounding ecosystems, both land and aqueous.

             The tourist routes of the SNNP «Altyn-Emel», of the different directions (existing and planned), can receive 235 persons (per diem), in case of using of 100%. 

It is recommended:

             After the creation of the additional infrastructure for the entertainment and placing of tourists, which are interested in the service of the different levels, after the start of the operation of additional routes, after the widening of the done services spectrum,  the establishment of the flexible system of tariffs, it is possible to expect the considerable increase of profits. The beach tourism is the most perspective in that case, because it is able to attract a great number of clients.


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